average life span per country

Life expectancy at birth varies a lot around the world. Some countries have very high life spans, while others have very low rates1. The World Bank Group’s 2022 report shows Macao SAR, China has the highest average life expectancy at 85.38 years. Hong Kong SAR, China is close behind at 85.83 years2, and Japan is at 84.00 years1. On the other side, countries like Chad have a life expectancy of just 53.68 years, Central African Republic at 55.48 years2, and Lesotho at 54.91 years have the lowest life expectancies.

Flag Country Life Expectancy (years)
🇯🇵 Japan 85.059
🇨🇭 Switzerland 84.493
🇸🇬 Singapore 84.372
🇮🇹 Italy 84.322
🇰🇷 South Korea 84.237
🇪🇸 Spain 84.166
🇦🇺 Australia 83.848
🇸🇪 Sweden 83.789
🇳🇴 Norway 83.677
🇮🇱 Israel 83.503
🇫🇷 France 83.467
🇳🇿 New Zealand 83.271
🇨🇦 Canada 83.154
🇮🇸 Iceland 83.076
🇮🇪 Ireland 82.999
🇱🇺 Luxembourg 82.868
🇦🇹 Austria 82.715
🇳🇱 Netherlands 82.688
🇫🇮 Finland 82.648
🇧🇪 Belgium 82.580

These big differences show how important things like healthcare, money, and environment are for a country’s well-being and growth3. In 2022, the United States had an average life expectancy of 77.43 years. This is lower than the average of 82.2 years for similar big, rich countries3. Even though the U.S. spends a lot on healthcare, it still lags behind.

Key Takeaways

  • Life expectancy at birth varies significantly across countries, with Macao SAR, China and Hong Kong SAR, China having the highest averages.
  • Low-income countries like Chad, Central African Republic, and Lesotho have the lowest life expectancies globally.
  • Factors such as access to healthcare, socioeconomic conditions, and environmental factors play a crucial role in shaping life expectancy rates.
  • The United States lags behind other large, wealthy countries in terms of life expectancy despite higher per capita healthcare spending.
  • Comparing life expectancy across nations provides valuable insights into the overall well-being and development of countries.

Life Expectancy: A Global Perspective

Life Expectancy at Birth (2024)

Life Expectancy at Birth (2024)

Source: Clio Infra, UN

Life expectancy at birth is a key measure of a country’s health and quality of life. It shows the average years a person is expected to live, assuming current death rates stay the same4. It’s vital to understand life expectancy because it shows how well a country’s healthcare works. It also shows the impact of things like income, education, and environment on how long people live.

Understanding Life Expectancy and Its Significance

The World Bank Group’s 2022 report shows life expectancy varies a lot around the world. Countries like Hong Kong SAR, China, Japan, and Macao SAR have the highest life expectancies. On the other hand, countries like Chad, Central African Republic, and Lesotho have the lowest4. Things that affect life expectancy include healthcare access, nutrition, sanitation, education, income, and disease rates.

Factors Influencing Life Expectancy Across Nations

Many factors affect life expectancy, both in healthcare and society4. Important factors include healthcare access, disease rates, nutrition, sanitation, education, income equality, and environmental conditions4. Countries with good healthcare, strong social support, and a high standard of living usually have longer lives. In contrast, countries facing poverty, limited healthcare, and high disease rates tend to have lower life expectancies4. Improving these areas is key to boosting life expectancy worldwide.

“Life expectancy is influenced by a complex interplay of various factors, both within the healthcare system and broader societal conditions.”

The Human Mortality Database has death rates and life tables for countries with complete death and census data5. It tracks the increase in life expectancy, following principles of comparability, flexibility, accessibility, and reproducibility5. Creating the data involves six steps: counting births and deaths, estimating population size, calculating death rates, and building life tables5.

CountryLife Expectancy (Years)Key Factors
San Marino84.1 (men), 86.8 (women)Mediterranean diet, low disease prevalence4
Japan84.2 (men), 87.5 (women)Plant-based diet, low pollution, sense of purpose6
Hong Kong82.3 (men), 87.8 (women)Low cardiovascular and cancer mortality, smoking bans6

Life expectancy has risen over time, with men living 19 years longer in 2022 than in 1960, and women living 20 years longer4. However, there are big differences. North America has the highest life expectancy in the Americas for both men and women4. Eastern Europe has the lowest life expectancy for men at 68.75 years4.

Many things affect life expectancy, like healthcare, nutrition, disease rates, and living conditions4. Women usually live 4 to 8 years longer than men, thanks to biology and lifestyle choices4. High child mortality rates also lower life expectancy, especially in developing countries4.

Dependent territories like Bermuda, Hong Kong, and Macao are included in the data, showing how life expectancy varies4. Improving the factors that affect life expectancy is crucial for better health and well-being worldwide456.

Top Countries with Highest Life Expectancy

The countries with the longest life expectancies show how far we’ve come in healthcare and public health. The World Bank Group’s 2022 report highlights Hong Kong SAR, China as the leader with an average life expectancy of 84.0 years7. Japan and Spain follow closely with 83.6 and 83.1 years, respectively8.

These top countries boast strong healthcare systems and low disease rates. They also have social conditions that help people live longer7. Hong Kong’s success comes from low smoking rates, a tea culture, healthy eating, and good healthcare7. Japan’s diet full of vegetables, fruits, meat, and fish, along with universal healthcare and screenings, adds to its high life expectancy7. Spain’s diet, rich in fresh veggies, olive oil, and fish, also plays a big part in its people’s long lives7.

CountryLife Expectancy (Years)
Hong Kong SAR, China84.0
South Korea83.0

These countries show that better healthcare and diets are linked to longer lives8. They set an example for others looking to boost their people’s health and longevity7.

Countries with Lowest Life Expectancy Rates

Some countries have very low life expectancies, which is a big concern9. The World Bank shows that Chad, the Central African Republic, and Lesotho have the shortest life expectancies, at 53.68, 55.48, and 54.91 years, respectively9. Nigeria, South Sudan, and Eswatini also struggle with life expectancies of 53.87, 56.51, and 57.71 years, respectively.

Examining the Challenges and Contributing Factors

These countries face many challenges that shorten their citizens’ lives9. They lack good healthcare, have high poverty and malnutrition, and deal with diseases like HIV/AIDS and malaria9. Political instability and environmental issues also play a part.

In places like Chad, the Central African Republic, and Lesotho, healthcare is often not well-funded and is overwhelmed10. Poverty and poor nutrition make health problems worse. The area is also hit hard by diseases and political issues10.

To fix these big problems, we need a strong, joint effort9. We must invest in healthcare, help reduce poverty, and work on political and environmental stability. This is key to improving life expectancy and health in these vulnerable areas9.

“The life expectancy gap between rich and poor nations is shocking. We must work together to make sure everyone has access to good healthcare and tackle the root causes of poverty.”

CountryLife Expectancy (Years)
Central African Republic55.489
South Sudan56.519

These countries face big challenges in improving health outcomes9. We need to tackle the complex issues that lead to shorter lives. This is key for sustainable development and giving everyone a chance to live long, healthy lives9.

average life span per country: A Comprehensive Analysis

The world’s average life expectancy has been rising over the years. This is thanks to better healthcare, living conditions, and disease prevention11. The World Bank Group says the average life expectancy in OECD countries is now 81 years, up by 11 years since 196011. But, life expectancy varies a lot from one country to another, showing the complex factors at play.

Looking closer, we see big differences in life span across countries11. Japan leads with a life expectancy of 84 years, while Mexico has the lowest at 75 years11. Countries like Brazil, the Russian Federation, and South Africa have life expectancies ranging from 76 to 64 years11. These differences highlight the need to understand what affects life expectancy in each country.

Gender also affects life expectancy11. On average, women live five years longer than men in OECD countries, with women at 83.6 years and men at 78.3 years11. This shows how biological, social, and behavioral factors play a role in the gap between men and women’s longevity.

CountryLife Expectancy (Years)
Hong Kong SAR, China85.38

Looking at global life expectancy data shows us the complex factors that affect health and longevity111213. Policymakers and health experts need to understand these factors to create better strategies. They should aim to improve life expectancy and well-being in different countries and communities.

life expectancy data

The Impact of Healthcare Systems on Life Expectancy

Exploring the Role of Healthcare Access and Quality

The quality and accessibility of a nation’s healthcare system greatly affect its life expectancy14. Countries with strong, universal healthcare and good medical services usually have longer lives. Getting preventive care, essential medicines, and advanced treatments helps people live longer15.

In Japan, a country with great healthcare and a focus on primary care, people live the longest at 85 years15. On the other hand, poor countries with limited healthcare often have the shortest lives16. Making healthcare better, by covering more people and improving care quality, is key to increasing life expectancy worldwide.

The U.S. spends a lot on healthcare but doesn’t rank high in life expectancy1415. This could be because it has fewer primary care doctors, lower vaccination rates, and big differences in healthcare access and quality14.

People without insurance in the U.S. often miss out on preventive care, which can lead to more illnesses and deaths14. In fact, about 18,000 people aged 25-64 die each year in the U.S. because they don’t have health insurance14. Making healthcare more accessible and better can greatly improve life expectancy in the U.S. and around the world.

“Improving healthcare systems, particularly in terms of expanding coverage and enhancing the quality of care, is crucial for driving progress in global life expectancy.”

Socioeconomic Factors and Life Expectancy

Socioeconomic conditions greatly affect life expectancy around the world17. Countries with strong economies, low poverty, and less income inequality tend to have longer lives17. Things like good nutrition, safe homes, and enough money help people live longer17. But, places struggling with poverty and poor nutrition often have the shortest lives17.

Studies show socioeconomic factors really matter for life expectancy18. In countries with free healthcare, people live about 10 years longer than in places without it18. Things like education, income, and stability affect health and life span18.

More research points out how socioeconomic factors help improve life expectancy in poorer countries19. From 1970 to 2004, things like the economy, education, and nutrition made a big difference in life expectancy in these countries19. Political and economic changes also played a big role19.

Socioeconomic FactorImpact on Life Expectancy
Economic DevelopmentHigher GDP per capita corresponds to increased life expectancy at birth17
Poverty and Income InequalityLower rates of poverty and income inequality are associated with longer life expectancies17
EducationBetter educational attainment is linked to higher life expectancy17
Access to HealthcareCountries with publicly funded healthcare have significantly longer life expectancies18
NutritionImproved nutritional status contributes to life expectancy gains in less developed countries19
Political RegimeChanges in political regime impact life expectancy, with democracy playing an important long-term role19

In conclusion, socioeconomic factors deeply affect life expectancy worldwide. Working on economic growth, education, and healthcare access is key to closing life expectancy gaps and improving health equity globally.

Socioeconomic Factors and Life Expectancy

Regional Disparities in Life Expectancy

Comparing Life Expectancy Rates Across Continents

Life expectancy varies greatly around the world, showing big differences20. In 2021, people lived an average of over 70 years, a big jump from 200 years ago20. But, this average hides big differences across regions. Asia, Europe, and Oceania usually have the highest life expectancies. Africa often has the lowest.

In 2021, Nigeria’s life expectancy was about thirty years less than Japan’s20. These differences come from many things like healthcare, wealth, diseases, and the environment20. Looking into these differences helps us find ways to make health better for everyone.

In the U.S., life expectancy varies a lot by region21. In the Deep South and Greater Appalachia, people lived about 77 years from 2018-2020, like Albania in 202021. But the Left Coast had an average life expectancy of 81.6 years, close to Canada’s21. These differences ranged from 3 to nearly 5 years, similar to gaps between the U.S. and other countries21.

Also21, the Left Coast and First Nation had a life expectancy gap over a decade, like Japan and Peru21. Hawaii and First Nation had a 10.8-year gap21. These gaps stay even when we look at wealth, poverty, healthcare, race, and education21.

Interestingly22, the country with the highest male life expectancy also had the lowest male life disparity in 89 out of 170 years studied (from 1840 to 2009)22. A similar trend was seen for female life expectancy and disparity, where in 86 years the country with the highest female life expectancy also had the lowest female life disparity22. This shows that high life expectancy often means a more even spread of longevity in a country22.

“Understanding these regional variations is crucial for developing targeted strategies to address the underlying drivers of longevity disparities and promote more equitable health outcomes worldwide.”

Life Expectancy and Gender Differences

Men and women live different lengths of time, a fact seen worldwide4. Women usually live longer than men, with a gap of several years. For example, in 2022, women in the U.S. lived 5.4 years longer than men. The gap was 4.4 years on average in similar countries4.

Many things affect how long men and women live, like biology, society, and behavior4. Women often make healthier choices, like smoking less and drinking less alcohol. This helps them live longer. Genetics and hormones might also play a part in the difference4.

Recently, men have been getting healthier and changing their ways, which has narrowed the gap8. But, women still live longer in most countries4.

Things like healthcare, food, and living conditions also affect life expectancy4. In poor countries, many children die young, which lowers life expectancy4.

It’s important to understand why men and women live different lengths of time4. This knowledge helps us make better health policies. By focusing on the issues men and women face, we can work towards better health for everyone4.

“Across most countries, women tend to live four to eight years longer than men on average.”4

Gender differences in life expectancy are complex and involve many factors20. As we improve health and life expectancy, we must tackle these disparities. This will help create a fairer future for everyone4.

CountryMale Life ExpectancyFemale Life Expectancy
United States74.8 years80.2 years
Global Average69.6 years74.5 years
European Union78.2 years83.6 years
San Marino84.1 years86.8 years
Chad51.3 years54.8 years

The table shows big differences in life expectancy between men and women, both in the U.S. and worldwide4. These differences highlight the need for action and policies to close the gap4.

Trends and Patterns in Life Expectancy by Gender

  • Life expectancy has grown by 18.9 years for men and 19.9 years for women globally from 1960 to 20224.
  • In Africa, men’s life expectancy varies from 56.55 to 68.70 years, while women’s ranges from 58.47 to 73.07 years4.
  • In Asia, men’s life expectancy is between 66.69 and 76.40 years, and women’s is between 70.35 and 81.85 years4.
  • In Europe, men’s life expectancy is from 68.75 to 79.94 years, and women’s is from 78.07 to 84.28 years4.
  • Oceania shows men’s life expectancy from 64.39 to 81.20 years, and women’s from 69.88 to 85.15 years4.

These trends show a big gap in life expectancy between men and women across the world4. We need to act to address this and improve health fairness4.

In summary, women live longer than men in most countries, a global fact20. Understanding and tackling these differences is key to better health and a fairer future for all4.

The Effects of COVID-19 on Global Life Expectancy

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected global life expectancy. The World Bank Group’s 2022 report shows a big drop. In the U.S., life expectancy fell by 1.3 years from 2019 to 2022. This is more than the average decline of 0.5 years in other countries23.

This pandemic has undone nearly two decades of progress in the U.S. Life expectancy levels are now back to what they were in 200423.

Examining the Impact of the Pandemic on Life Expectancy Rates

Other countries have seen smaller drops in life expectancy. They are starting to see increases in 2021 and 2022 as they recover from the pandemic’s effects23. The U.S. faced a bigger impact due to higher health issues, unequal healthcare access, and social inequalities23.

Globally, the situation is concerning2324. Life expectancy fell by 1.8 years to 71.4 years from 2019 to 202123. Healthy life expectancy dropped by 1.5 years to 61.9 years in 202123. The Americas and South-East Asia were hit hard, with life expectancy dropping by about 3 years and healthy life expectancy by 2.5 years23. The Western Pacific Region saw little effect, with life expectancy decreasing by less than 0.1 years and healthy life expectancy by 0.2 years23.

The COVID-19 pandemic has also greatly increased mortality. In 2020 and 2021, it was the third and second leading cause of death worldwide, causing nearly 13 million deaths23. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) still caused 78% of deaths not related to COVID-19 during the pandemic, showing the need for a broad healthcare approach23.

The pandemic’s effects on life expectancy highlight the need to understand and address these issues. Protecting global health in the future will require a complex plan. This plan must consider healthcare systems, economic conditions, and public health measures2324.

“The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on global life expectancy, with the World Bank Group’s 2022 report revealing a substantial decline.”

CountryLife Expectancy Change (2019-2021)
Belgium+10.8 months
Switzerland+7.7 months
Spain+7.6 months
France+5.0 months
England and Wales+2.1 months
Italy+5.1 months
Sweden+7.5 months
Slovenia+3.1 months
Bulgaria-25.1 months
Chile-8.0 months
Czech Republic-10.4 months
Germany-3.1 months
Estonia-21.5 months
Greece-12.4 months
Croatia-11.6 months
Hungary-16.4 months
Lithuania-7.9 months
Poland-12.1 months
Slovakia-23.9 months
United States-2.7 months

The table shows how COVID-19 has affected life expectancy differently around the world. Some countries like Belgium, Switzerland, and Spain saw life expectancy go up. But countries like Bulgaria, Estonia, and Slovakia saw big drops25. It’s important to understand these differences to make better health plans232425.

Strategies for Improving Life Expectancy Globally

To fix the big gaps in life expectancy around the world, we need a detailed plan26. We must strengthen healthcare, tackle economic issues, and start public health programs.

First, making sure everyone can get good, affordable healthcare is key26. By doing this, countries can fight off diseases and make people live longer.

Second, we must look at economic issues like poverty and education27. Countries like Ethiopia and Brazil show us that improving these areas can really help people live longer.

  1. Start public health programs to prevent and treat diseases26.
  2. Invest in protecting the environment to lessen the effects of climate change26.
  3. Encourage healthy living through education and community projects26.

Using proven strategies and working together globally is vital for better life expectancy27. By focusing on both health care and economic issues, we can help close the gap in life expectancy and improve health for everyone.

CountryLife Expectancy (years)
Sierra Leone52
Central African Republic52
Hong Kong84

Improving life expectancy requires a detailed, evidence-based plan27. By tackling health care and economic issues, we can make life better for people everywhere26.

“The research recommends further studies comparing more countries and examining processes that drive within-country inequities to understand factors contributing to differential performance in population health outcomes internationally.”27

In conclusion, we need a wide-ranging plan to improve life expectancy26. By focusing on health care, economic, and environmental factors, we can aim for a future where everyone has a good life.

Future Trends and Projections for Life Expectancy

Healthcare, medical tech, and public health efforts are making the future look bright for life expectancy. The World Bank Group’s 2022 report says life expectancy will go up by 4.9 years for men and 4.2 years for women by 205028. This means the global life expectancy will jump from 73.6 years in 2022 to 78.1 years in 2050, a 4.5-year jump28. Also, healthy life expectancy (HALE) will increase from 64.8 years in 2022 to 67.4 years in 2050, adding 2.6 years28.

These gains in life expectancy and HALE come from fighting heart diseases, COVID-19, and other infectious diseases, and tackling non-communicable diseases (NCDs)28. But, issues like obesity, high blood pressure, bad diets, and smoking will keep affecting health, making NCDs more common28. Even so, health gaps between rich and poor areas are narrowing, and the biggest life expectancy gains are expected in sub-Saharan Africa28.

The future of life expectancy hinges on better healthcare, tech, and tackling social, economic, and environmental health issues29. By 2024, the world’s life expectancy is set to be 73.33 years, up 0.23% from 202329. As people live longer, keeping an eye on these trends and using evidence-based policies will be key. This will help improve health and longevity around the globe.


What is the average life expectancy per country?

The World Bank Group’s 2022 report shows big differences in life expectancy around the world. Hong Kong SAR, China leads with a life expectancy of 85.38 years. Japan and Macao SAR, China, follow closely with 84.00 and 85.38 years, respectively.

What are the countries with the best life expectancy?

Countries like Hong Kong SAR, China, Japan, and Macao SAR, China, boast life expectancies over 84 years. Switzerland, Singapore, Italy, South Korea, Spain, Malta, and Australia also make the top 10 list.

What is the average life expectancy globally?

Life expectancy varies a lot worldwide. Chad, Central African Republic, and Lesotho have the lowest at about 54 years. Factors like healthcare access, nutrition, sanitation, education, income, and disease rates play a big role.

How do healthcare systems impact life expectancy?

Healthcare quality and access greatly affect life expectancy. Countries with strong, universal healthcare and good medical infrastructure tend to have longer lives. Those with limited healthcare access have shorter lives.

How do socioeconomic factors affect life expectancy?

Socioeconomic factors like economic development, poverty, income inequality, and education deeply impact life expectancy. Countries with better living standards and equal access to resources usually have longer lives.

What are the regional disparities in life expectancy?

The World Bank Group’s 2022 report shows big regional differences in life expectancy. Asia, Europe, and Oceania generally have the highest values. But, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest life expectancies.

How has the COVID-19 pandemic affected global life expectancy?

COVID-19 has greatly affected global life expectancy. The United States saw a 1.3-year drop from 2019 to 2022. Many other countries also saw decreases. It’s important to address the pandemic’s effects on life expectancy for global health.

What strategies are being implemented to improve life expectancy globally?

To improve life expectancy, strategies include strengthening healthcare and tackling socioeconomic issues. Public health programs, environmental protection, and promoting healthy behaviors are also key. A detailed, evidence-based approach is needed to boost global health and longevity.

Source Links

  1. List of countries by life expectancy – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_life_expectancy
  2. Life Expectancy by Country and in the World (2024) – https://www.worldometers.info/demographics/life-expectancy/
  3. How does U.S. life expectancy compare to other countries? – Peterson-KFF Health System Tracker – https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/chart-collection/u-s-life-expectancy-compare-countries/
  4. Average life expectancy by country – https://www.worlddata.info/life-expectancy.php
  5. Life expectancy – https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/life-expectancy
  6. Average life expectancy around the world – https://www.bupaglobal.com/en/your-wellbeing/general-health/average-life-expectancy
  7. Countries Where People Live the Longest – https://www.cignaglobal.com/blog/expat-culture/best-life-expectancy-by-country
  8. Difference Between Life Expectancy in the United States and Other High-Income Countries – Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK62373/
  9. Countries With the Longest and Shortest Life Expectancies – https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/countries-with-the-longest-and-shortest-life-expectancies
  10. Which countries have the highest and lowest life expectancy? – https://www.standard.co.uk/news/world/life-expectancy-countries-highest-lowest-list-b1067880.html
  11. OECD Better Life Index – https://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/topics/health/
  12. Vital Statistics Rapid Release, Number 023 (August 2022) – https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/vsrr/vsrr023.pdf
  13. Healthy life years statistics – Statistics Explained – https://www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Healthy_life_years_statistics
  14. The Role of Health Care – Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK62376/
  15. Here’s how countries compare on healthcare expenditure and life expectancy – https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2022/11/countries-compare-on-healthcare-expenditure-life-expectancy/
  16. Global Health – https://ourworldindata.org/health-meta
  17. Socioeconomic development and life expectancy relationship: evidence from the EU accession candidate countries – Genus – https://genus.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41118-019-0071-0
  18. Is life expectancy higher in countries and territories with publicly funded health care? Global analysis of health care access and the social determinants of health – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9653205/
  19. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study – BMC Public Health – https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-12-85
  20. Life Expectancy – https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy
  21. The Regional Geography of U.S. Life Expectancy – https://www.nationhoodlab.org/the-regional-geography-of-u-s-life-expectancy/
  22. Life expectancy and disparity: an international comparison of life table data – https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/1/1/e000128
  23. COVID-19 eliminated a decade of progress in global level of life expectancy – https://www.who.int/news/item/24-05-2024-covid-19-eliminated-a-decade-of-progress-in-global-level-of-life-expectancy
  24. COVID-19 had greater impact on life expectancy than previously known, but child mortality rates continued to decline during the pandemic – https://www.healthdata.org/news-events/newsroom/news-releases/covid-19-had-greater-impact-life-expectancy-previously-known
  25. Life expectancy changes since COVID-19 – Nature Human Behaviour – https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-022-01450-3
  26. Global life expectancy is changing around the world – https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2023/02/charted-how-life-expectancy-is-changing-around-the-world/
  27. Why do some countries do better or worse in life expectancy relative to income? An analysis of Brazil, Ethiopia, and the United States of America – International Journal for Equity in Health – https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-020-01315-z
  28. Global life expectancy to increase by nearly 5 years by 2050 despite geopolitical, metabolic, and environmental threats, reports new global study – https://www.healthdata.org/news-events/newsroom/news-releases/global-life-expectancy-increase-nearly-5-years-2050-despite
  29. World Life Expectancy 1950-2024 – https://www.macrotrends.net/global-metrics/countries/WLD/world/life-expectancy

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